Our eyes, complex and delicate organs, are susceptible to various conditions that can affect vision. Understanding common eye conditions such as myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and others is crucial for early detection and proper management. Now Dr. Zuhal Butuner delves into these prevalent eye issues, providing insights into their causes, symptoms, and treatment options.

Myopia (Nearsightedness)

Definition and Symptoms: Myopia is a condition where close objects appear clear, but distant ones are blurry. It occurs when the eyeball is too long or the cornea has too much curvature, causing light rays to focus in front of the retina.

Management and Treatment: Correction options include eyeglasses, contact lenses, and refractive surgery, such as LASIK, for long-term correction.

Hyperopia (Farsightedness)

Understanding Hyperopia: In hyperopia, distant objects are seen more clearly than close ones. It’s typically caused by a shorter-than-normal eyeball or a cornea with too little curvature, making light focus behind the retina.

Treatment Approaches: Like myopia, hyperopia can be corrected with glasses or contact lenses. Refractive surgery is also an option for suitable candidates.


Identifying Astigmatism: Astigmatism leads to blurry or distorted vision at any distance and is often present from birth. It occurs due to an irregularly shaped cornea or lens, which prevents light from focusing properly on the retina.

Correction Methods: Corrective lenses (glasses or contacts) designed to counteract the distortion. Refractive surgery is another option for correction.


Age-Related Changes: Presbyopia is an age-related condition where the eyes gradually lose the ability to focus on nearby objects, typically starting around age 40.

Managing Presbyopia: Bifocal or multifocal lenses, and reading glasses, are common solutions. Some opt for contact lenses or refractive surgery options tailored to presbyopia.


Understanding Cataracts: A cataract is the clouding of the eye’s lens, leading to a decrease in vision. It’s commonly related to aging but can result from other factors like diabetes or long-term UV exposure.

Treatment Options: Early cataract symptoms may be improved with new glasses, brighter lighting, or other visual aids. However, when these measures no longer help, cataract surgery, in which the cloudy lens is removed and replaced with an artificial one, is often recommended.


The Sneak Thief of Sight: Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, often associated with increased pressure in the eye. It’s one of the leading causes of blindness for people over the age of 60.

Early Detection and Management: Regular eye exams are crucial for early detection. While glaucoma damage is irreversible, medication or surgery can slow or prevent further vision loss.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Impact of Diabetes on Eyes: Diabetic retinopathy occurs in people with diabetes. High blood sugar levels cause damage to blood vessels in the retina, leading to vision problems.

Prevention and Treatment: Controlling diabetes is key to preventing or delaying this condition. Treatment, depending on the stage of the disease, may include laser treatment, injectable medications, or surgery.

Regular eye exams are vital for early detection and treatment of these common eye conditions. Understanding the symptoms and available treatments can aid in maintaining good eye health and vision quality. Remember, many eye conditions develop slowly, and symptoms may not be apparent initially. Hence, proactive eye care and consultation with eye care professionals are essential for preserving your vision.